Carolyn Fischer is Research Manager of the Sustainability and Infrastructure Team in the Development Research Group of the World Bank. Her research addresses issues of technical change, trade, and carbon leakage in environmental policy instrument design. She has held appointments as a professor of environmental economics at the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam and as a Canada 150 Research Chair in Climate Economics, Innovation and Policy at the University of Ottawa, where she is currently on leave. She holds research fellow affiliations with Resources for the Future (RFF), the European Institute of Environmental Economics (EIEE), the Tinbergen Institute, and the CESifo Research Network. She was a Council Member for the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (EAERE), serves on expert advisory boards for research institutes in Europe and in North America, and is co-editor of Environmental and Resource Economics. She earned her Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.